A Survey of Spatial Deformation from a User-Centered Perspective

The spatial deformation methods are a family of modeling and animation techniques for indirectly reshaping an object by warping the surrounding space, with results that are similar to molding a highly malleable substance. They have the virtue of being computationally efficient (and hence interactive) and applicable to a variety of object representations.


In this paper we survey the state of the art in spatial deformation. Since manipulating ambient space directly is infeasible, deformations are controlled by tools of varying dimension - points, curves, surfaces and volumes - and it is on this basis that we classify them. Unlike previous surveys that concentrate on providing a single underlying mathematical formalism, we use the user-centered criteria of versatility, ease of use, efficiency and correctness to compare techniques.