Warp Sculpting

The task of computer-based free-form shape design is fraught with practical and conceptual difficulties. Incorporating elements of traditional clay sculpting has long been recognized as a means of shielding the user from these complexities. We present warp sculpting, a variant of spatial deformation, which allows deformations to be initiated by the rigid body transformation or uniform scaling of volumetric tools. This is reminiscent of a tool imprinting, flexing, and molding clay. Unlike previous approaches, the deformation is truly interactive. Tools, encoded in a distance field, can have arbitrarily complex shapes. Although individual tools have a static shape, several tools can be applied simultaneously. We enhance the basic formulation of warp sculpting in two ways. First, deformation is toggled to automatically overcome the problem of "sticky” tools, where the object's surface clings to parts of a tool that are moving away. Second, unlike many other spatial deformations, we ensure that warp sculpting remains foldover-free and, hence, prevent self-intersecting objects.